Tracking Jupiter's Moons
Your planetarium must have the capabilities of diurnal motion and Moon phases with proper position relative to an image of the Sun.
2. Reading Lights for the Students
In our permanent planetarium, we have 7-watt night-light orange bulbs under the cove, with shades so they shine down on the audience. This is very convenient, because visitors can see their “Tracking Jupiter’s Moons” charts and look back at the sky freely. The program can also be done by turning up the daylight for people to mark their charts, and then turning down for the next observation.
3. “Tracking Jupiter’s Moons” Data Sheet
For each student, have a pencil and a copy of the master.
NASA: http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/; http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/
JPL-Caltech: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov
U. Arizona: University of Arizona, http://arizona.edu
LHS: Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720
Galileo looked at Jupiter.
Image 1: Jupiter and 4 Moons.
He saw the planet Jupiter with four small objects in a line near it. Galileo thought the objects were stars, but when he observed Jupiter on subsequent nights, those “stars” appeared in different places. This was quite upsetting (and intriguing) since patterns of other stars never change in relation to one another. Galileo kept careful records of the positions of Jupiter’s companion “stars.”
Image 2:* Galileo’s Notes.
Don’t worry if you can’t read the words. It’s written in Italian. Each night Galileo recorded the positions of Jupiter (use arrow to indicate), and its 4 companion “stars.”
Do you think they are really stars? [No.] What else could they be? [Moons!]
Galileo determined that they were moons. Let’s see why. Let’s watch Jupiter and its moons for a few nights just as Galileo did. Here is some astronomical note paper for you to note the changing positions.
Hand out a “Tracking Jupiter’s Moons” sheet to each person.
One sticky problem Galileo had was trying to tell which “star” was which. Let’s make our job easier by doing something Galileo could not: color each moon a different color.
Image 3: Jupiter and Moons Color Coded.
Let’s further simply our task by specializing: look at only one moon at a time.
Divide the class into four groups and assign each group one “star” to keep track of. Point out color, letter, and name of each moon. Point out numbers that indicate distance from Jupiter in millions of miles. For younger classes (grades 1-2), do not hand out paper. Do not divide the class into groups. Have the entire class observe one moon at a time.
Image 4: Tracking Night 1.
Here is our view for our first night’s observation. Please put a mark on your “Night 1” line indicating the position of your moon as you see it in relation to Jupiter.
Go around and check to see that each student understands. Help as needed.
Now we will let one day go by to arrive at “Night 2.” Then we will let a second day go by to arrive at “Night 3.” After eight days have gone by, we will have arrived at “Night 9.” Each night, mark where your moon is with respect to Jupiter on the appropriate line.
Images 5–12: Tracking Nights 2–9.
By now, you can see why Galileo concluded `that his odd “stars” must really be moons.
How can you tell they are moons, not stars? [They move back and forth, “around” Jupiter.]
A moon orbits a planet. These moons seem to move back and forth in a straight line because we see their orbits from the side. If we could see Jupiter from above its North Pole, we would see these moons go around Jupiter.
How could you tell how many days it takes for your moon to orbit Jupiter? [Count how many days it takes to return to its starting position. Be sure to count just the spaces in between the nights to get a correct answer for the number of days gone by.]
Ask a member of each group to report the orbital period of the moon that s/he tracked.
Can you see any relationship between the farthest distance each moon gets from Jupiter and the time it takes to orbit Jupiter? [The more distant moons go around more slowly.]
Not all four moons are visible all the time. Sometimes one or more moons are in front of or behind Jupiter and cannot be seen.